# Heat Transfer

## Article Summary & FAQs

### What is heat transfer?

Heat transfer is an engineering discipline that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of heat (thermal energy) between physical systems. In power engineering, it determines key parameters and materials of heat exchangers.

### Key Facts

• Heat is the amount of energy flowing spontaneously from one body to another due to its temperature difference. Heat is a form of energy, but it is energy in transit.
• Heat transfer is usually classified into various mechanisms, such as:
• Heat Conduction. Heat conduction, also called diffusion, occurs within a body or between two bodies in contact. It is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems.
• Heat Convection. Heat convection depends on the mass motion from one region of space to another. Heat convection occurs when the bulk flow of a fluid (gas or liquid) carries heat along with the flow of matter in the fluid.
• Thermal Radiation. Radiation is heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation, such as sunshine, with no need to be present in the space between bodies.
• Fourier’s law of thermal conduction law states that the time rate of heat transfer through a material is proportional to the negative gradient in the temperature and the area at right angles to that gradient, through which the heat flows.
• Newton’s law of cooling states that the rate of heat loss of a body is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the body and its surroundings, provided the temperature difference is small and the nature of radiating surface remains the same.
• Stefan–Boltzmann law states that radiation heat transfer rate, q [W/m2], from a body (e.g., a black body) to its surroundings is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature.
• Boiling and condensation differ from other forms of convection in that they depend on the latent heat of vaporization, which is very high for common pressures. Therefore large amounts of heat can be transferred during boiling and condensation at a constant temperature.
• Heat exchangers are devices used to transfer thermal energy from one fluid to another without mixing the two fluids.
• To minimize heat losses in industry and also in the construction of buildings, thermal insulation is widely used. The purpose of thermal insulation is to reduce the overall heat transfer coefficient by adding material with low thermal conductivity.
What are the three mechanisms of heat transfer?
What are the three mechanisms of heat transfer?

Heat transfer is usually classified into various mechanisms, such as:

• Heat Conduction. Heat conduction, also called diffusion, occurs within or between two bodies in contact. It is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems.
• Heat Convection. Heat convection depends on the mass motion from one region of space to another. Heat convection occurs when the bulk flow of a fluid (gas or liquid) carries heat along with the flow of matter in the fluid.
• Thermal Radiation. Radiation is heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation, such as sunshine, with no need for the matter to be present in the space between bodies.
What is heat transfer used for?
What is heat transfer used for?

Heat transfer is commonly encountered in engineering systems and other aspects of life, and one does not need to go very far to see some application areas of heat transfer. Detailed knowledge of heat transfer mechanisms is also essential for reactor engineers as well as all other engineers.

What are the main parameters of heat exchangers?
What are the main parameters of heat exchangers?

Heat transfer in a heat exchanger usually involves convection in each fluid and thermal conduction through the wall separating the two fluids. In analyzing heat exchangers,  it is often convenient to work with an overall heat transfer coefficientknown as a U-factor. The U-factor is defined by an expression analogous to Newton’s law of cooling.

Moreover, engineers also use the logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) to determine the temperature driving force for heat transfer in heat exchangers.

## Heat Transfer

Heat transfer is an engineering discipline that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of heat (thermal energy) between physical systems. In power engineering, it determines key parameters and materials of heat exchangers. Heat transfer is usually classified into various mechanisms, such as:

• Heat Conduction. Heat conduction, also called diffusion, occurs within a body or between two bodies in contact. It is the direct microscopic exchange of kinetic energy of particles through the boundary between two systems. When an object is at a different temperature from another body or its surroundings
• Heat Convection. Heat convection depends on the mass motion from one region of space to another. Heat convection occurs when the bulk flow of a fluid (gas or liquid) carries heat along with the flow of matter in the fluid.
• Thermal Radiation. Radiation is heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation, such as sunshine, with no need for the matter to be present in the space between bodies.

Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
Thermodynamics is the science that deals with energy production, storage, transfer and conversion. It studies the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another and makes no reference to how long the process will take. But in engineering, we are often interested in the rate of heat transfer, which is the topic of the science of heat transfer. We can recall from thermodynamics that energy exists in various forms.

Heat transfer is primarily interested in heat, the form of energy that can be transferred from one system to another due to temperature differences. The engineering thermodynamics might better be named thermostatics because it primarily describes the equilibrium states on either side of irreversible processes.

In engineering, the term convective heat transfer describes the combined effects of conduction and fluid flow. At this point, we have to add a new mechanism known as advection (the transport of a substance by bulk motion). From the thermodynamic point of view, heat flows into a fluid by diffusion to increase its energy, the fluid then transfers (advects) this increased internal energy (not heat) from one location to another, and this is then followed by a second thermal interaction which transfers heat to a second body or system, again by diffusion.

## Heat Transfer in Nuclear Engineering – Application

Heat transfer is commonly encountered in engineering systems and other aspects of life, and one does not need to go very far to see some application areas of heat transfer.

Detailed knowledge of heat transfer mechanisms is also essential for reactor engineers as well as all other engineers. A nuclear power plant (nuclear power station) looks like a standard thermal power station with one exception. The heat source in the nuclear power plant is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations, the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator that produces electricity. But in nuclear power plants, reactors produce an enormous amount of heat (energy) in a small volume. The density of the energy generation is very large, which puts demands on its heat transfer system (reactor coolant system). Therefore we have to start with the reactor heat generation and removal from the reactor.

For a reactor to operate in a steady-state, all of the heat released in the system must be removed as fast as it is produced. This is accomplished by passing a liquid or ga搜索引擎优化us coolant through the core and through other regions where heat is generated. The heat transfer must be equal to or greater than the heat generation rate or overheating, and possible damage to the fuel may occur. The nature and operation of this coolant system are some of the most important considerations in designing a nuclear reactor.

It should be noted that from a strictly nuclear standpoint, there is theoretically no upper limit to the reactor thermal power, which can be attained by any critical reactor having sufficient excess of reactivity to overcome its negative temperature feedbacks. There is a direct proportionality between the neutron flux and thermal power in each nuclear reactor. The term thermal power is usually used because it means the rate at which heat is produced in the reactor core due to fissions in the fuel. Moreover, for a short period, a critical reactor does not need to have high excess of reactivity as in the case of rapid reactivity excursions.

In short, almost any reactor can exceed the ability of heat removal of its coolant system. Beyond this point, the fuel would heat up and reach very high temperatures. This situation must be avoided by reactor operators and by reactor safety systems. The heat generation – heat removal rate balance must be maintained to prevent these temperatures that might fail fuel or other structural materials. In reactor engineering, the thermal-hydraulics of nuclear reactors describe the effort involving the coupling of heat transfer and fluid dynamics to accomplish the desired heat removal rate from the core under both normal operation and accident conditions.

Thermal Efficiency of Nuclear Power Plants
The thermal efficiency of the conversion of thermal energy to work is primarily determined by the difference between the hot and cold temperature reservoirs. Thermal efficiency is improved if the heat input from the steam to the steam turbine is at as high a temperature as possible and the heat rejection in the condenser is at as low a temperature as possible. The high temperature in a light water reactor is usually limited by materials and pressure considerations, and the sink temperature is limited by the environment.

Typically most nuclear power plants operate multi-stage condensing steam turbines. In these turbines, the high-pressure stage receives steam (this steam is nearly saturated steam – x = 0.995 – point C at the figure; 6 MPa; 275.6°C) from a steam generator and exhausts it to moisture separator-reheater (point D). The steam must be reheated to avoid damages that could be caused to the steam turbine blades by low-quality steam. The reheater heats the steam (point D), and then the steam is directed to the low-pressure stage of the steam turbine, where it expands (point E to F). The exhausted steam then condenses in the condenser. It is at a pressure well below atmospheric (absolute pressure of 0.008 MPa) and is in a partially condensed state (point F), typically of a quality near 90%.

In this case, steam generators, steam turbines, condensers, and feedwater pumps constitute a heat engine subject to the efficiency limitations imposed by the second law of thermodynamics. In ideal case (no friction, reversible processes, perfect design), this heat engine would have a Carnot efficiency of

η = 1 – Tcold/Thot = 1 – 315/549 = 42.6%

where the temperature of the hot reservoir is 275.6°C (548.7K), the temperature of the cold reservoir is 41.5°C (314.7K). But the nuclear power plant is the real heat engine, in which thermodynamic processes are somehow irreversible. They are not done infinitely slowly. In real devices (such as turbines, pumps, and compressors), mechanical friction and heat losses cause further efficiency losses.

Therefore nuclear power plants usually have an efficiency of about 33%. In modern nuclear power plants, the overall thermodynamic efficiency is about one-third (33%), so 3000 MWth of thermal power from the fission reaction is needed to generate 1000 MWe of electrical power.

Boiler Pressure

According to Carnot’s principle, higher efficiencies can be attained by increasing the temperature of the steam. But this requires an increase in pressures inside boilers or steam generators. However, metallurgical considerations place upper limits on such pressures. To prevent boiling of the primary coolant and provide a subcooling margin (the difference between the pressurizer temperature and the highest temperature in the reactor core), pressures around 16 MPa are typical for PWRs. The reactor pressure vessel is the key component that limits the thermal efficiency of each nuclear power plant since the reactor vessel must withstand high pressures.

From this point of view, supercritical water reactors are considered a promising advancement for nuclear power plants because of their high thermal efficiency (~45 % vs. ~33 % for current LWRs). SCWRs are operated at supercritical pressure (i.e., greater than 22.1 MPa).

Condenser Pressure

The case of the decrease in the average temperature at which energy is rejected requires a decrease in the pressure inside the condenser (i.e., the decrease in the saturation temperature). The lowest feasible condenser pressure is the saturation pressure corresponding to the ambient temperature (i.e., the absolute pressure of 0.008 MPa, which corresponds to 41.5°C). The goal of maintaining the lowest practical turbine exhaust pressure is a primary reason for including the condenser in a thermal power plant. The condenser provides a vacuum that maximizes the energy extracted from the steam, resulting in a significant increase in network and thermal efficiency. But also this parameter (condenser pressure) has its engineering limits:

• Decreasing the turbine exhaust pressure decreases the vapor quality (or dryness fraction). At some point, the expansion must be ended to avoid damages that could be caused to blades of steam turbine by low-quality steam.
• Decreasing the turbine exhaust pressure significantly increases the specific volume of exhausted steam, which requires huge blades in the last rows of a low-pressure stage of the steam turbine.

In a typical wet steam turbines, the exhausted steam condenses in the condenser and it is at a pressure well below atmospheric (absolute pressure of 0.008 MPa, which corresponds to 41.5°C). This steam is in a partially condensed state (point F), typically of a quality near 90%. Note that, there is always a temperature difference between (around ΔT = 14°C) the condenser temperature and the ambient temperature, which originates from finite size and efficiency of condensers.

References:
Heat Transfer:
1. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7th Edition. Theodore L. Bergman, Adrienne S. Lavine, Frank P. Incropera. John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2011. ISBN: 9781118137253.
2. Heat and Mass Transfer. Yunus A. Cengel. McGraw-Hill Education, 2011. ISBN: 9780071077866.
3. U.S. Department of Energy, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 2 of 3. May 2016.

Nuclear and Reactor Physics:

1. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983).
2. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1.
3. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1.
4. Glasstone, Sesonske. Nuclear Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, Springer; 4th edition, 1994, ISBN: 978-0412985317
5. W.S.C. Williams. Nuclear and Particle Physics. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467
6. G.R.Keepin. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co; 1st edition, 1965
7. Robert Reed Burn, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Operation, 1988.
8. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Volume 1 and 2. January 1993.
9. Paul Reuss, Neutron Physics. EDP Sciences, 2008. ISBN: 978-2759800414.